Rabu, 23 Maret 2011

Paper of grammar

PREFACE
      By the grace of Allah SWT, the writer has finished our paper. it took about to accomplish the paper, which is submitted to English Department of Education, faculty of Tarbiyah, Islamic university of Sunan Gunung Djati in partial fulfillment of requirement for making paper.
      The title of the paper is research of must, mustn’t, have to, don’t have to, should, shouldn’t, especially wo4rds derived from some book.
      In writing this paper, the writer obtains a lot of valuable contribution from other.
      Therefore she would like to thank to all of them:
1.      All our friends
2.      Our lecture
3.      Official of library
May Allah SWT accept their good deeds. Amin…
The writer realizes that there is no perfect. One’s work because all perfection and completeness belong to all. This is the same thing as what they writer that is far from being perfect.
Some criticisms and suggestion from other will be warmly welcome.
Finally, may this paper be useful and helpful especially for teacher of English and for the reader generally.



Bandung,    March 2008



The writers


CONTENTS

PREFACE........................................................................................................................
CONTENTS
LESSON 1 : MUST...........................................................................................................
LESSON 2 : MUSTN’T.....................................................................................................
LESSON 3 : HAVE TO......................................................................................................
LESSON 4 : DON’T HAVE TO..........................................................................................
LESSON 5 : SHOULD.......................................................................................................  
LESSON 6 : SHOULDN’T.................................................................................................
REFERENCE....................................................................................................................








LESSON 1
1.      MUST
We use must (do) to say that it is necessary to do something, often it doesn’t matter which you use:
Example:
·         Oh dear, it is later than I thought. I must go now.
·         You must have a passport to visit most foreign countries.
Must the speaker is giving his own feelings, saying what he thinks is necessary:
·         I must write to Ann, I haven’t written to her for ages
(=the speaker personally feels that he must write to Ann)
·         The government really must do something about unemployment
(= the speaker personally fell that the government must do something)
      We can only use to talk about the present and future:
·         We must go now
·         Must you leave tomorrow?
We use to say we are sure that something is true:
·         You’ve been travelling all day, you must be tired.
(= I am sure that you are tired)
·         I hear that your examinations are next week. You must be studying very hard at the moment.
(= I am sure that you are studying)
·         Coral knows a lot about films, she must go to the cinema a lot.
(= I am sure she goes to the cinema a lot )
      Study the structure:
be tired/hungry etc.
I/you/he etc         { must}  be studying/waiting etc.
                                          go/do etc.
      We use must to say something is very important
·         I must study tonight, I’m going to take a very important test tomorrow
·         You must take an English course, you cannot graduate without it.

LESSON 2
  1. Mustn’t
You mustn’t do something means: it is necessary that you do not do it: you don’t have a choice.
-          you mustn’t tell anyone what I said (= don’t tell anyone)
-          I promised I’d be on time. I mustn’t be late (= I must be on time)
-          The baby is a sleep. You mustn’t shout (= it is necessary that you do not shout)
-          You can tell Tom what I said but mustn’t tell anybody else (= it is necessary that he doesn’t tell anybody else)
-          I must not be late for work if you want to keep your job.

LESSON 3
  1. Have to
With have the speaker is not giving his own feel he is just giving facts, for example:
-          Ann’s eyes are not very good, she has to wear glasses for reading
-          I can’t meet you on Friday. I have to work
Have to can be used in all forms. For example:
-          I had go to hospital (past)
-          I might have to go to hospital (infinitive)
-          Have you ever had to go hospital (present perfect)
Note: That we use do/does/did with have to in present and past question and negative sentences:
-          What do I have to do to get a driving license? (not have I to do)
-          Why did you have to go to hospital? (not had you to go)
-          Tome doesn’t have to work on Saturdays (not hasn’t to work)
They, we, I, you (have to) + V1
He, she, it (has to) + V1   
LESSON 4
  1. Don’t have to
Don’t have to
You don’t have to do something means: it is not necessary to do it; you don’t need to do it:
-          I don’t have to wear a suit to work but I usually do
-          She stayed in bed this morning because she didn’t have to go to work.

LESSON 5
  1. Should
a)      Study this example:
Tom has just come back from the cinema:
Ann            : Hello, Tom. Did you enjoy the film?
Tom           : Yes, it was great. You should go and see it.
Tom is advising Ann to go and see the film. ‘you should go’ means that it would be a good thing to do. We often use should (do) when we say what we think is a good thing to do or the right thing to do.
b)      We often use should when we ask for or give an opinion about something. Often we use I think / I don’t think / do you think?
-          I think the government should do something about the economy.
-          I don’t think you should work so hard.
-          Do you think I should apply for this job?’    ‘ Yes, I think you should.
c)      If … should …
-          If you should see tom this evening, can you tell him to phone me?
This is similar to ‘If you see tom’ (without should). With should the speakers less certain:
-          If it should rain, can you bring in the washing from the garden?
-          Don’t worry if I should be late home tonight.
You can also begin with should (before the subject):
-          Should you see Tom this evening; can you tell him to phone me?
d)      You can use should after these verbs (other structure are possible too):
Suggest            propose           recommend    insist    demand
-          They insisted that we should have dinner with them.
Or: They insisted that we had dinner with them.
-          She demanded that I should apologies to her.
Or: She demanded that I apologized to her.
Be careful with suggest. You can’t use the infinitive / to do / to play etc.) After suggest:
What do you suggest we should do? Or what do you suggest we do?
(But not ‘what do you suggest us to do?’)
Jim suggested (that) I should buy a car. Or Jim suggested (that) I bought a car.
(But not ‘Jim suggested me to buy’)

LESSON 6
  1. Shouldn’t    
We also use should to say something is not ‘right’ or not what we expect:
-          The price on this packet is wrong. It says 65 pence but it should be 50.
-          Those children shouldn’t be playing. They should be at school.
-          That motor-cyclist should be wearing a crash helmet.

REFERENCES
Murphy, Raymond. 1998. English Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge Iniversity Press.
Azar, Betty, S. 1989. Understanding And Using English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Azar, Betty, S. 2006. Basic English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

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