Kamis, 24 Maret 2011

Present Perfect Tense


A.      Form of the present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is formed with the present tense of have + the past participle.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and subject.

Verbal sentence

(+)   S + Have/Has + Past participle

(-)    S + + Have/Has + not + Past participle                                                  

(?)    Have/Has + S+ Past participle?                                                                

(-?)  Have/Has +S +not+ Past participle?                                                      
Nominal Sentence
(+)   S + Have/Has + been+3C (ANA)
(-)    S + + Have/Has + not +been+ 3C (ANA)
(?)    Have/Has + S+ been+ 3C (ANA)?

(-?)  Have/Has +S+ not+ been+ 3C (ANA)?
                 Adjective, Noun, Adverb
                Have is used when the subject is I, you, they, we.
                Has is used when the subject is she, he, it.
 I’ve worked                                  She has worked                                 They‘ve been here
 I’ve not worked                          She has not worked                         They’ve not been here
 Have I worked?                           Has she worked?                               Have they been here?

B. WH Question of Present Perfect Tense
Where                      + have/has +S+ past participle?
Who                      +have/has+ past participle?

B. Passive voice of present perfect tense
Passive voice of present perfect tense is formed with present tense of have+ been +past participle
S+ Have/has+ been+ past participle.
The letter has been posted.
C. Time signal used in Present Perfect Tense
Just                                                     Ever since
Already                                              Recently
Not……yet                                        Lately
So far                                                  since
Up to now                                        For
Up to present
Since is followed by the point of time/the beginning of time and simple past.
I’ve been here since 1985.
She has been here since she bought a new house.
For is followed by period of time.
They‘ve been here for 2 months.
D. Function of Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense is used
v  To indicate complete activity in the immediate past; as
He has just gone out
v  To express past actions whose time not given and not definite ; as,
I’ve never known him to be angry
Mr. Harri has been to Japan.
v  To describe past events when we think  more of their effect in the present than of the action itself; as,
I’ve finished my work (I’m free now).
v  To denote an action  be ginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment; as,
I’ve known him for a long time.

E. Conclusion
Complete activity in the past
Indefinite time signal
Emphasize to the result (connection with present moment).

Complete activity in the past
Definite time signal
There is not connection with present moment.

A.J. Thomson, A.V Martinet, A Practical English Grammar.
Marcella Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide.
Wren and Martin, High School English Grammar and Composition.

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