Sabtu, 06 November 2010

Charachteristic of learners

For example, educational psychologists have researched the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget's theory of development, according to which children mature through stages of cognitive capability. Piaget hypothesized that children are unable to abstract logical thought until they are older than about 11 years, & therefore more youthful children need to be taught using concrete objects & examples. Researchers have found that transitions, such as from concrete to abstract logical thought, do not occur simultaneously in all domains. A kid may be able to think abstractly about arithmetic, but stay limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships. Perhaps Piaget's most enduring contribution is his insight that people actively construct their understanding through a self-regulatory method.
To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, & elderly age, educational psychology develops & applies theories of human development. Often represented as stages through which people pass as they mature, developmental theories document changes in mental abilities (cognition), social roles, moral reasoning, & beliefs about the nature of knowledge.
Rudolf Steiner's model of kid development interrelates physical, emotional, cognitive, & moral development[3] in developmental stages similar to those later described by Piaget.
Piaget proposed a developmental theory of moral reasoning in which children progress from a nave understanding of morality based on behavior & outcomes to a more advanced understanding based on intentions. Piaget's views of moral development were elaborated by Kohlberg in to a stage theory of moral development. There is facts that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. For example, other factors such as modeling (as described by the social cognitive theory of morality) are necessary to report bullying.

Developmental theories are sometimes introduced not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions. Development of epistemological beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: certainty & permanence of knowledge, fixedness of ability, & credibility of authorities such as teachers & specialists. People generate more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in schooling & maturity.

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