Minggu, 14 November 2010


Inventory a consist of separate list: (a) all the grammatical topic to be taught in the work of the work, organized in a sequence suitable for systematic learning & for generalization that can be create along the way. (b) list of notional categories to be taught in the work of the work. These to separate list are than combined in to units comprising notions & structures in a way that lets us saw how notional categories & grammatical categories interact. Cautious preparatory work has to be done by the work planers themselves. They can, of work, use examples such as the Threshold level (Van Ek 1977) for the notional lists & any nice grammar for nice grammatical categories. The combination however, will must be developed for the particular work & will need various planning & conceptualization before worthwhile list can be produced.

As an example of a combined teaching unit of notion & grammar, think about the notion time & its interaction with the tense aspect technique in English. This unit has to broken down in to teachable portions which may must spread throughout the coursework, making a kind of spiraling plan where the unit of time & tense aspect recourse with expanded topics every view weeks or so. Thus, the planners might choose that the most logical placed to start this unit is with the durative aspect which in English is probably different from all other language requiring special focus in the materials.

Alternatively, planners may choose to start a description of timeless, static statements such as factual information, method activities & the like which are venom-durative, the decisions on sequence will based on both linguistic generalizations, similarity, difference for L1, & other deductive variables such as the teachers abilities to provide examples & context for the particular topic availability of such relevance context in the immediate surroundings, & other similar consideration. The important point is that by working with combine unit of notions in structures, designers ought to be able to & sure the inclusion of both types of categories throughout the syllabus. Furthermore, the spiraling approach will enable teachers & learners to tackle in difficult areas repeatedly, to be continue at different level of sophistication & within different contextual situations.

Inventory A provide the skeleton of the program, the backbone around which other elements will have developed using inventories B and C (discussed below). Moreover, basic consideration of sequencing in work planning cant be thrown out entirely, despite what some curriculum designers believed in the early days of the communicative approach. As Brumfit (1981) states syllabus implies movement, it must contain a beginning point as well as an finish point.

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